The via Ferrata (Italian for “iron way”) is a mountain route equipped with steel cables, ladders, and other fixed anchors, for example wooden walkways and suspended bridges. The artificial equipment renders feasible an exposed route even to the inexperienced climber, and allows those not versed in climbing technique to hike on ledges, climb vertical walls, and reach the peaks of mountains.
However, one had to wait until 1880 forthe first Italian Ferrata, when the Alpine Guides of Madonna di Campiglio in the Western Dolomites equipped the eastern side of the Cima Brenta to facilitate climbing for their clients.
In the following years, especially in the Eastern Alps, many mountain iteneraries were equipped which allowed mountain troops passage in places particularly inaccessible, for the purpose of controlling the warring front. In fact, many vie ferrate, especially in the Dolomites, often have a military origin and were equipped during the difficult frontier war fought in the years 1915 to 1918.
Tourism has significantly revalued the Vie Ferrate. Today, the use of Vie Ferrate is an activity accessible to all, an activity that consists in following a sporting itinerary splayed out across rocky walls, equipped with cables, steps, ladders, and other elements that can be used to facilitate the climb while at the same time guaranteeing safety.
Via ferrata equipment
In addition to the normal equipment used to hike in the mountains (adequate clothing, boots, backpack, first aid kit, food and drink), in order to travel a Ferrata with safety, one has to have the proper equipment specific to a Ferrata: Helmet, Harness, a Ferrata Set, Ferrata gloves.
The Fall Factor “Fc” is the ratio of the height of the fall to the length of rope used to stop the fall. In a normal roped and belayed rock climb, the maximum fall factor one can reach is 2. On a Via Ferrata, however, the Fall Factor can be significantly higher than 2.
Without going into arcane technical details, one has to realize that the higher the Fall Factor, the graver the consequences of a fall. To minimize these consequences, the two short rope lengths are equipped with a braking device that absorbs the energy of the fall and drastically reduces the Fall Factor.
At times, an ice axe and crampons can prove useful, and a head lamp is indispensable when one enters in the numerous tunnels excavated by the military during WWI.
Progressing up the cable and Technique
The difficulty in a Ferrata derives mainly from the steepness of the wall and the quantity of holds and supports, whether natural or artificial. The easiest Ferrate are usually called “Sentieri Ferrati” (“Iron Trails”), while the more difficult ones are defined as “Vie Ferrate”.
One needs to underline that technical difficulty is only one of the components of the difficulty of a Ferrata.
A route, even if easy, can become extremely difficult in case of snow and ice; a quick change in weather conditions and the arrival of a thunderstorm can create serious problems for the climber. Remember that the blessed cable is certainly a great help but can become a lightning rod under the appropriate conditions.
Finally, even the length of the itinerary affects the degree of difficulty of a Ferrata.
For example, take the “Sentiero ferrato Ivano Dibona” on Monte Cristallo. This panoramic “walk” doesn’t present technical difficulties, but statistics tell us that it is here that we have the greatest number of rescues.
In fact, even if easy, it’s a very long sentiero ferrato which puts to the test the physical endurance of the unfit.
Furthermore, reading in the various guides that it’s an easy route, it attracts all sorts of excursionists, many of whom start in late morning, often with inadequate equipment.
Just like climbing, a ranking system for the vie ferrate has been set up to assign difficulty levels to them.
|Via ferrata difficulty level||Ferrata characteristics|
|EASY||Not particularly exposed ferrata, unchallenging with long sections on footpaths.|
|MEDIUM||Ferratas which are sometimes long and exposed but require only limited strength and facilitated by wires.|
|DIFFICULT||Ferrata with short sections of overhanging rock face requiring physical strength and fitness, exposed for long sections.|
|VERY DIFFICULT||Ferrata requiring great agility and technical skill and requiring upper body strength and no fear of heights whatsoever.|
|EXTREMELY DIFFICULT||As well as being very difficult (see above) the physical fitness and strength required are greater in that the difficult sections are long and continuous. Sometimes “extremely difficult” ferrata have been deliberately created to challenge those doing them to the limit. In this case there is usually a danger sign indicating this before the section concerned.|
Find “your ferrata”
In closing, here is an interesting program that allows you to find the Via Ferrata most suitable to your needs and fitness levels.
The program, interesting also for lovers of statistics, has been developed by our friend Mauro Boni, a passionate lover of the mountains and someone very knowledgeable about numerous Vie Ferrate.
Click the button and find your ferrata